Dampak Pemberian Tablet Zat Besi (Fe) pada Ibu Hamil terhadap Kejadian Bayi dengan Berat Badan Lahir Rendah (Analisis Lanjut SDKI 1994)
Agtini, Magdarina Destri
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AbstractThe prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) in Indonesia varied between 2.1-17.2%. At the end of five years Development Plan V (Repelita V) it was 15.0%, and is expected to decrease to 10.0% by the end of Repelita VI. Low Birth Weight infant (less than 2500 grm) is an important issue, because of its relationship with the survival and health status of the infant in the future. The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women is 63.5%. The cause of anemia is mostly iron deficiency. The need of iron in pregnant women is quite high which is an average of 800 mg during pregnancy. Daily food contains 10-20 mg iron but the human body can absorb only less than 10.0%. To overcome the problem, iron pills distribution program is implemented. The iron pills contain 200 mg ferro sulfate and 0.25 mg folic acid, and are given to all pregnant women who visit Community Health Centres (puskesmas) and Integrated Health Service Posts (posyandu). Each pregnant women is expected to have at least 90 iron pills during the pregnancy. The objective of further analysis of the Demographic and Health Survey 1994 is to obtain information on the impact of iron pills on low birth weight. Among the 1689 weighted children born in 1994, there were 6.7% (112 children) with low birth weight. The percentage of low birth weight (10.6%) in the mothers who did not take the iron pills is the highest, followed by mothers who took less than 90 pills (6.0%) and the lowest percentage of low birth weight is found among mothers who took the least iron pills (5.9%), and statistically the difference is significant at p=0. 0271. Among mothers who weighted their new born children, 14.6% did not take iron pills during pregnancy, only 26.1% mothers who took at least 90 iron pills during pregnancy. There is variation among the number of iron pills taken. Iron pill is useful for pregnant women. Based on the pills consumed by the pregnant women, the risk for having low birth weight infant for mother who did not take pills compared with those who take at least 90 pills is 3.5 times (95% CI: 1.41 -9.09) in Java Bali, 10.3 times (95% CI: 1.11-14.29) for mothers with education Junior High School and 2.7 times (95% CI: 1.11 -6.66) for mothers who give birth for the first child. Based on the number of pills taken by pregnant women, risk for Low Birth Weight in urban and rural area is not different, in Java Bali and as outer Java Bali. To reduce the Low Birth Weight, it is important to intensify monitoring, educating, informating on the importance of iron pills with balanced nutrition through health attendant and community key person and involvement of private company through mass media. It is important to have examination of women before she get pregnant and give proper treatment to the diseases which can worsen the anemia during pregnancy. It is also important to do special research on the high risk of anemia by considerating factors which determine low birth weight in the effort of promoting the health of pregnant women and the infants, so that specific and or appropriate methods of intervention can be developed and applied.
- Repositori Balitbangkes