Asphyxia neonatorum is a situation of newborn infant who has a disorder that does not breathe or breathe breathing spontaneously and regularly after birth. This first breath failure causes an imbalance of ventilation perfusion that make impaired gas exchange. This research aims to to know the description of the nursing care of infants asphyxia neonatorum with impaired gas exchange. This research uses descriptive method with the draft case study against the two subjects were observed to use the documentation. The data collection tool used in the form of observation sheet. Based on the results of the case study, on the assessment found differences in results with the theory. Nursing diagnoses that are established in the form of nursing problems are impaired gas exchange, ineffective breathing patterns and the risk of infection. Planning made a diagnosis adjusted to enforced. Implementations there are several actions that lead to diagnosis of impaired gas exchange. Evaluation using SOAP format in accordance with existing theory. Based on this research indicate that there are some differences of data on the documentation with the data on the theory used as a reference by researchers. With the results of this case study is expected nurses can perform nursing documentation using standards and guidelines in accordance with the latest scientific developments and can be used as primary data in the preparation of further research development.