A cross sectional study was conducted in four regencies of East Timor province in 1988. The purpose of the study was to obtain data on sociocultural aspects of a sampled population in relation to water supply and sanitation. Data were collected through interviews using questionnaires. A household was selected as sampling unit and the head of the household was chosen as respondent. Of the 760 respondents interviewed, 603 (79.76%) were illiterate, 560 (73.68%) did not speak Bahasa Indonesia, and 604 (79.47%) of them were farmers. Most of the respondents lived in temporary houses, 65 (79.60%), however, 100 (13.16%) and 55 (7.24%) lived in semi-permanent and permanent houses respectively. The number of the households that had their own water supply, facilities were 156 (20.53%), 540 (71.05%) used public facilities and 57 (7.57%) used neighbour's facilities. Of the households that used latrines, 189 (25.10%) had their own facilities, and 57 (7.57%) used public facilities. The rest 565 (67.33%) defecated at improper places. Even though most of the socio-economic variables were still poor, there were several cultural variables which could support extended water supply and sanitation programme, e.g. the local existing organization, the role of informal and formal leaders of the village, and the cooperative spirit.