The Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) has identified mothers who had baby and child under five who suffered cough, rapid breathing and fever as well as treatment pattern while was suffering in the two weeks preceding the survey. According to the definition of World Health Organization, pneumonia is characterized by cough with difficult or rapid breathing who easily to know by layman. This article will analyze the tendency of the pneumonia and fever prevalence, as well as treatment pattern which was done. The prevalence of pneumonia in the seventh years period only decreased 8 percent, that is 10 percent in IDHS 1991 to 9 percent in IDHS 1997, whereas the target of Five Years Development Plan VI (Repelita VI) is expected to decrease the morbidity 20 percent. The prevalence of pneumonia shifted in the direction to younger aged group, from 12-23 months to 6-11 months, who had more risk than the older aged group. The prevalence of pneumonia in the rural area and Outer Java Bali was higher than in the urban area and Java Bali. The prevalence offever decreased slightly from 7 percent to 6 percent. The advantage of health facilities through children who was suffering pneumonia shown to increase from 63 percent to 69 percent and that of suffering from fever shown to increase from 50 percent to 58 percent. Though the role of traditional healer has decreased, however there were 1 to 2 percent children who suffered from pneumonia and fever were still taken to a traditional healer. The percentage of baby and child under five who had not been treated was less than one third and the percentage of self treatment was still remain the same. To increase the efforts in eliminating pneumonia in all remote areas, it is warranted that the community should actively participate distributing the information. In addition, the provider should improve their capability on detecting, identifying the clinical signs, and increased their alertness against the risk to pneumonia. Health facilities should be supplied with adequate drugs, especially antibiotics for this purpose.