Background: Maternal conditions were important determinants for children development. Therefore, mothers impacted by IDD condition also became risk factor for children developmental delays. Objective: Analyze the associations between maternal social status, maternal nutritional status including maternal goiter status, maternal IQ, and quality of care, with pre-school children cognitive abilities in IDD endemic areas. Method: This study explores the data screening of parenting and iodized salt intervention studies of pre-school children in IDD endemic areas. The study was conducted in Pituruh, Purworejo district. A total pair of 82 mothers and 4-5 years aged children became subjects of this research. Data were analyzed with path analysis. Result: The percentage of child cognitive ability problems found were high (59.5%) and 17.1% mothers had goitre enlargement. Multivariate analysis with Path showed that home quality of care (r=0.41) and maternal verbal responsiveness (r=0.24) associated directly and rather strongly with preschool child cognitive ability. Maternal education and IQ both significantly correlated with home environmental quality of care. Since both variable having colinearity, just one variable chosen as determinant of care. Maternal IQ associated indirectly with child cognitive ability through home environmental quality of care (r=0.38) and maternal verbal responsiveness (r=0.31). Maternal goiter associated with child cognitive development indirectly through its association with maternal IQ (r= 0.23). Conclusion: The cognitive abilities of preschool children in endemic areas GAKI affected directly by the home environmental quality of care and maternal verbal responsiveness. Indirectly, maternal quality of care is affected by maternal IQ and maternal education. Maternal goiter status affected children cognitive abilities through its influence on maternal IQ, maternal education, and quality of care.