Intellectual deficit in children living in IDD endemic areas were not caused by single factor of iodine deficiency. Educational level, decrease of mental development related to IDD, and lack of cognitive stimulation also contributed to impaired cognitive development in children. This study was aimed to explore perception and practice of parenting based cognitive stimulation for children living in endemic areas of IDD. This was a qualitative research conducted in six family who had pre school children, with the risk of having cognitive developmental delayed, due to living in IDD endemic areas, and low social economisc status and low maternal education. Data obtained from several sources, through partisipative observation, interview, and psychological assessment. Observation of the condition of parenting and home environment conducted with HOME and partisipative observation. Informants of parenting conditions were come from mother, father, and also community figures. Psychological assessment showed the risk of low cognitive stimulation parenting practice. Mothers had not conducted adequate stimulation, especially in the aspect of academic stimulation and learning. Mother perceived that cognitive stimulation was not part of parenting responsibility because it perceived as part of teacher responsibility. Mother also felt that they had no opportunity and ability. Mother was perceived as main person responsible in caring children, but the opportinity they had with their children had not been used for cognitive stimulation, because cognitive stimulation perceived as school related activities. Play activities had not been utilized actively by mothers as the main source of cognitive stimulation. Cognitive stimulation as one of potential source for cognitive enhancement in IDD endemic area needd to be done in earlier age. Mothers in the IDD endemic areas needd to be informed about the importance of of cognitive stimulation in pre school age, in order to support cognitive development task and academic achievement in the future life.